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The Santa Claus we all know and love — that big, jolly man in the red suit with a white beard — didn’t always look that way. In fact, many people are surprised to learn that prior to 1931, Santa was depicted as everything from a tall gaunt man to a spooky-looking elf. He has donned a bishop’s robe and a Norse huntsman’s animal skin. In fact, when Civil War cartoonist Thomas Nast drew Santa Claus for Harper’s Weekly in 1862, Santa was a small elflike figure who supported the Union. Nast continued to draw Santa for 30 years, changing the color of his coat from tan to the red he’s known for today.
Here, a few other things you may not have realized about the cheerful guy in the red suit.
1. Santa Has Been Featured in Coke Ads Since the 1920s
The Coca-Cola Company began its Christmas advertising in the 1920s with shopping-related ads in magazines like The Saturday Evening Post. The first Santa ads used a strict-looking Claus, in the vein of Thomas Nast.
In 1930, artist Fred Mizen painted a department-store Santa in a crowd drinking a bottle of Coke. The ad featured the world’s largest soda fountain, which was located in the department store Famous Barr Co. in St. Louis, Mo. Mizen’s painting was used in print ads that Christmas season, appearing in The Saturday Evening Post in December 1930.
2. Coca-Cola Helped Shape the Image of Santa
In 1931 the company began placing Coca-Cola ads in popular magazines. Archie Lee, the D’Arcy Advertising Agency executive working with The Coca-Cola Company, wanted the campaign to show a wholesome Santa who was both realistic and symbolic. So Coca-Cola commissioned Michigan-born illustrator Haddon Sundblom to develop advertising images using Santa Claus — showing Santa himself, not a man dressed as Santa.
For inspiration, Sundblom turned to Clement Clark Moore’s 1822 poem “A Visit From St. Nicholas” (commonly called “‘Twas the Night Before Christmas”). Moore’s description of St. Nick led to an image of a warm, friendly, pleasantly plump and human Santa. (And even though it’s often said that Santa wears a red coat because red is the color of Coca-Cola, Santa appeared in a red coat before Sundblom painted him.)
Sundblom’s Santa debuted in 1931 in Coke ads in The Saturday Evening Post and appeared regularly in that magazine, as well as in Ladies Home Journal, National Geographic, The New Yorker and others.
From 1931 to 1964, Coca-Cola advertising showed Santa delivering toys (and playing with them!), pausing to read a letter and enjoy a Coke, visiting with the children who stayed up to greet him, and raiding the refrigerators at a number of homes. The original oil paintings Sundblom created were adapted for Coca-Cola advertising in magazines and on store displays, billboards, posters, calendars and plush dolls. Many of those items today are popular collectibles.
Sundblom created his final version of Santa Claus in 1964, but for several decades to follow, Coca-Cola advertising featured images of Santa based on Sundblom’s original works. These paintings are some of the most prized pieces in the art collection in the company’s archives department and have been on exhibit around the world, in famous locales including the Louvre in Paris, the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, the Isetan Department Store in Tokyo, and the NK Department Store in Stockholm. Many of the original paintings can be seen on display at World of Coca-Cola in Atlanta, Ga.
3. The “New Santa” Was Based on a Salesman
In the beginning, Sundblom painted the image of Santa using a live model — his friend Lou Prentiss, a retired salesman. When Prentiss passed away, Sundblom used himself as a model, painting while looking into a mirror. Finally, he began relying on photographs to create the image of St. Nick.
People loved the Coca-Cola Santa images and paid such close attention to them that when anything changed, they sent letters to The Coca-Cola Company. One year, Santa’s large belt was backwards (perhaps because Sundblom was painting via a mirror). Another year, Santa Claus appeared without a wedding ring, causing fans to write asking what happened to Mrs. Claus.
The children who appear with Santa in Sundblom’s paintings were based on Sundblom’s neighbors — two little girls. So he changed one to a boy in his paintings.
The dog in Sundblom’s 1964 Santa Claus painting was actually a gray poodle belonging to the neighborhood florist. But Sundblom wanted the dog to stand out in the holiday scene, so he painted the animal with black fur.
4. Santa Claus Got a New Friend in 1942
In 1942, Coca-Cola introduced “Sprite Boy,” a character who appeared with Santa Claus in Coca-Cola advertising throughout the 1940s and 1950s. Sprite Boy, who was also created by Sundblom, got his name due to the fact that he was a sprite, or an elf. (It wasn’t until the 1960s that Coca-Cola introduced the popular beverage Sprite.)
5. Santa Became Animated in 2001
In 2001, the artwork from Sundblom’s 1963 painting was the basis for an animated TV commercial starring the Coca-Cola Santa. The ad was created by Academy Award-winning animator Alexandre Petrov.
Images of Coca-Cola’s Santa Claus
(1) “My Hat’s Off to The Pause That Refreshes” — 1931. The magical transformation of the Coca-Cola Santa happened in 1931. Archie Lee, the ad agency creative director for the Coca-Cola account, was inspired to show a wholesome, kind Santa. He turned to artist Haddon Sundblom to create the image.
(2) “Please Pause Here … Jimmy” — 1932. Sundblom’s second painting features a note in which a child, Jimmy, leaves a Coke for Santa instead of cookies. This ad ran in the Saturday Evening Post, Collier’s, Literary Digest and Ladies’ Home Journal.
(3) “The Pause That Keeps You Going” — 1934. Sundblom painted over the original 1931 canvas when he created the 1934 painting. A comparison of the two images shows that he added a little more fur, a hat and a whip.
(4) “It Will Refresh You Too” — 1935. This ad shows that if drinking Coca-Cola is good enough to refresh Santa, it is good enough to refresh everyone else.
(5) “Me Too” — 1936. In this painting, Santa enjoys himself in the midst of his bounty of toys and a Coca-Cola.
(7) “Thanks for the Pause that Refreshes” — 1938. A child first showed up in 1938 when Santa appeared embracing a youngster in the family living room. Reeling from the Great Depression, Americans desperately needed to be reminded of pleasant moments, and Coke, as much as anything, provided those moments.
(9) “Wherever I Go” — 1943. The Coca-Cola Santa was used in advertising to support the war effort. If you look closely, you can see that Santa has War Bonds in his sack.
(10) “Here’s to Our G.I. Joes” — 1944. Santa and the Sprite Boy are featured saluting the troops during the holiday season. For many years the brand was only called Coca-Cola. In 1941 Coca-Cola trademarked the name “Coke,” with a series of ads indicating that Coca-Cola and Coke were the same drink. The company also introduced the Sprite Boy character at this time.
(11) “They Knew What I Wanted” — 1945. With the end of the Second World War came the return to civilian life and homecomings around the world. Here, Santa Claus and Coca-Cola offer a comforting vision of a return to a warm and welcoming home.
(12) “Travel Refreshed” — 1949. Although this painting does not clearly show eight reindeer, the reference to the well-known team from Clement Clarke Moore’s poem ‘Twas the Night Before Christmas is obvious. Again, Santa has some help from the Sprite boy in this piece of art.
(13) “Now It’s My Time” — 1951. By the time Sundblom painted this Santa, he had become his own model using self-portraits from photographs, according to his wife Betty. But even in this painting, Sundblom tended to assume the three-quarter-view angle common to artists who paint themselves from a mirror’s reflection.
(14) “… and Now the Gift for Thirst” — 1952. Sundblom painted his next door neighbors in Tucson, Arizona — Lani & Sancy Nason. Yes, they were sisters, but Sundblom changed one to a boy to create more balanced scenes. Sundblom said, “I don’t know whether she liked being a boy or not. I never asked her.” The Nasons also appeared in 1952 and 1953 works.
(15) “Sparkling Holidays” — 1956. This Santa artwork is a cleaned-up version of the 1953 painting. Santa’s work bench and other helpers were removed. This painting was produced by a new advertising agency for Coca-Cola, McCann-Erickson.
(16) “Refreshing Surprise” — 1959. This artwork shows a departure for Sundblom. Previous images feature Santa as the main subject. But from 1959 onward, Santa plays an important part of the Christmas scene, but elves, children, pets and toys also play significant roles.
(17) “When Friends Drop In” — 1961. For Santa to do his work, he must secretly slip in and out of a home. In this painting Santa shushes a yapping schnauzer to avoid waking a sleeping family.
(18) “Season’s Greetings” — 1962. In this painting Santa displays an impish, child-like personality. As in 1936, Santa has brought an electric train, but this time there is also a helicopter, something that did not exist until 1940.
(19) “Santa, Please Pause Here” — 1963. Jimmy is at it again. First in 1932 then again in 1945, Jimmy leaves Santa a note and a Coke. In a 2001 ad, this 1963 Santa comes to life in an animated holiday commercial created by Academy Award-winning animator Alexandre Petrov.
(20) “Things Go Better with Coke” — 1964. This was the last year that a traditional, original Sundblom Santa was used in the advertising for Coca-Cola.
Source: Coca-Cola, 5 Things You Never Knew About Santa Claus and Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Journey, Jan 1, 2012, http://www.coca-colacompany.com/holidays/the-true-history-of-the-modern-day-santa-claus.