Maps, charts and infographics can really help bring data and information to life. Maps can make a point resonate with readers. This collection of maps aims to do just that.
Hopefully some of these maps will surprise you and you’ll learn something new. A few are important to know, some interpret and display data in a beautiful or creative way, and a few may even make you chuckle or shake your head.
1. Where Google Street View is Available
2. Countries That Do Not Use the Metric System
3. The Only 22 Countries in the World Britain Has Not Invaded (not shown: Sao Tome and Principe)
4. Map of ‘Pangea’ with Current International Borders
Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, forming about 300 million years ago. It began to break apart around 200 million years ago. The single global ocean which surrounded Pangaea is accordingly named Panthalassa.
5. McDonald’s Across the World
6. Paid Maternal Leave Around the World
7. The Most Common Surnames in Europe by Country
8. Worldwide Driving Orientation by Country
9. Map of Time Zones in Antarctica
10. The World’s Busiest Air Routes in 2012
11. Visualizing Global Population Density
12. Flag Map of the World
13. Map of Alcohol Consumption Around the World
14. Map of Alcoholic Drink Popularity by Country
15. Map of Rivers in the Contiguous United States
16. US Map of the Highest Paid Public Employees by State
17. World Map of Earthquakes Since 1898
18. Map of Where 29,000 Rubber Duckies Made Landfall After Falling off a Cargo Ship in the Middle of the Pacific Ocean
19. Map of Countries with the Most Violations of Bribery
20. World Map of Vegetation on Earth
21. Average Age of First Sexual Intercourse by Country
22. If the World’s Population Lived in One City
23. The Number of Researchers per Million Inhabitants Around the World
24. Worldwide Map of Oil Import And Export Flows
25. The 7000 Rivers that Feed into the Mississippi River
Source: Jeff Clark, Neoformix, February 26, 2013
Back in February of this year, the Guardian Datablog published an interesting post called Obesity worldwide: the map of the world’s weight. It contains a map that shows with color the rates of obesity around the world. If you click on a country (for example, I clicked randomly on Denmark), it triggers a pop-up window which gives you more detailed statistics for that country for different time frames and for both male and female (see screenshot below).
As you review the chart, several other interesting questions come to mind that could not be easily answered with the map or chart.
- What is the trend over time?
- Do these trends exist worldwide?
- Which countries are exceptions to the trend?
- Which countries have the highest or lowest rates of obesity?
- Are there large gender-based differences in obesity rates in various countries?
Mr. Clark has a background in science, He decided to try to build an interactive visualization that helped answer the questions above. He wanted to try to build something that explicitly highlighted some of the more interesting aspects of the data without sacrificing freeform exploration. Ultimately, he settled on using a Slopegraph which was first described by Edward Tufte and is featured on the cover of Cairo’s excellent book The Functional Art.
This first image below shows the trend for male obesity organized by continent. It’s a difficult problem to show labels for so many countries along one axis so Mr. Clark tried to alleviate it by letting the user expand or hide countries by continent group. In this case ‘North America’ is expanded to show its’ individual countries. Labels are only shown if they don’t overlap with others. The largest countries by population are placed first.
Individual country lines can be clicked on to emphasize them with color.
The third example shown below charts female values on the left against male values on the right in order to emphasize gender differences.
The interactive visualization includes a ‘stepper’ that takes the user through four different views. This helps introduce functionality gradually as well as serving to emphasize important patterns in the data.
NOTE: More evening trolling of blogs related to data visualization. I came across a blog by Scott Weingart called the scottbot irregular. In particular, I liked his research on Trees and Webs. So today, I am showcasing portions of his blog on this topic.
Scott Weingart is a self-proclaimed juggler, an academic, and a nice guy. He feels pretty clueless about a lot of things, and his blog is his attempt to become less so.
Mr. Weingart has recently been working on journal submissions and a new book in the works, but he figured his readers would be interested in one of those forthcoming publications. This is an article [preprint] that Scott will be presenting at the Universal Decimal Classification Seminar in The Hague this October, on the history of how we’ve illustrated the interconnections of knowledge and scholarly domains. It’s basically two stories: one of how we shifted from understanding the world hierarchically to understanding it as a flat web of interconnected parts, and the other of how the thing itself and knowledge of that thing became separated.
Porphyrian Tree: tree of Aristotle’s categories originally dating from the 6th century. [via some random website about trees]
A few caveats worth noting: first, because Scott didn’t want to deal with the copyright issues, there are no actual illustrations in the paper. For the presentation, he is going to compile a PowerPoint with all the necessary attributions and post it alongside this paper so you can all see the relevant pretty pictures. For your viewing pleasure, though, he did include some of the illustrations on his blog.
An interpretation of the classification of knowledge from Hobbes’ Leviathan. [via e-ducation]
Second, because this is a presentation directed at information scientists, the paper is organized linearly and with a sense of inevitability; or, as my fellow historians would say, it’s very whiggish. Scott did not have the space to explore the nuances of the historical narrative, as it would distract from the point and context of his presentation. he plans on writing a more thorough article to submit to a history journal at a later date, hopefully fitting more squarely in the historiographic rhetorical tradition.
H.G. Wells’ idea of how students should be taught. [via H.G. Wells, 1938. World Brain. Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc]
In the meantime, if you’re interested in reading Mr. Weingart’s pre-print draft, click here.
Recent map of science by Kevin Boyack, Dick Klavans, W. Bradford Paley, and Katy Börner. [via SEED magazine]
Note: I just wanted to let you know I am going to occasionally post interesting graphics from The Wall Street Journal under the title “WSJ DataViz.” This week’s entry is about the sad affair that is going on in my hometown of Detroit. Crazy “solutions” are being tossed around like selling the art in the Detroit Institute of Art Museum to selling the Howdy Doody original puppet from its famous puppet collection. Greed and corruption brought it down. The great culture and heritage of this city should not suffer for these politicians sins.
Source: Politics Counts: How Detroit is Different, Dante Chinni, WSJ, August 2, 2013.
Politics Counts: How Detroit Is Different
Over the last few weeks, the city of Detroit has become America’s favorite urban cautionary tale. The largest U.S. city ever to go bankrupt has been called everything from a failure of self-government to a glimpse into the future for America’s cities.
- But when you step back and look at the numbers, it becomes clear that Detroit is different. The mix of depopulation, economic shifts and racial problems that hit Detroit combined to create an unmatched set of trials – or at least unmatched for a city of its size and scale.
That’s not to say there aren’t lessons for others in Detroit’s troubles, there are. But trying to apply those lessons to other cities with questions like “Is Philadelphia next?” is likely a big mistake. The combination of troubles that led to Detroit’s bankruptcy, from auto industry declines to population loss, was in many ways woven into the city’s unique fabric.
Manufacturing, long the bread and butter of the Motor City, is a perfect example. Anyone with even a casual understanding of the U.S. economy knows that manufacturing has declined as a job creator over the past 60 years, but Census data from then and now show the numbers in the city of Detroit are truly breathtaking.
|Manufacturing 1950||Manufacturing 2011|
|U.S.||15.2 million people; 33% of the employed||15.2 million people; 10.8% of the employed|
|Detroit||348,000 people; 46% of the employed||27,901 people; 12.4% of the employed|
That is a 92% drop in the number of people employed in what was the primary industry in Detroit since 1950. Yes it happened over time, but it was an enormous blow to a city that was built on automobile production – even as the declines happened.
Other big cities have seen manufacturing declines but not to the same extent. Chicago’s manufacturing jobs went from 593,000 in 1950 to about 121,000 today, according to Census figures. But Chicago was never built just around manufacturing the way Detroit was and while Chicago’s losses were steep – an 80% decline since 1950 – they were not nearly as bad as Detroit’s.
As the manufacturing jobs left Detroit – many into the suburbs – the city’s population began to change. Detroit’s white population peaked around 1951, but the decline accelerated following the race riots of the late 1960s. In 1950, Detroit was 84% white, by 1980 it was 34% white. Today it is about 11%.
Other big cities saw their white population drop, but nowhere near those numbers. Philadelphia is still 45% white. New York is 44% white.
The racial changes in the city of Detroit not only raised racial tensions between the city and suburbs – making it difficult for the region to work together – the loss of the generally wealthier white population had a very real impact on the city’s tax base. Median household income is now less than half what it was in 1970, according to Census figures adjusted to 2010 dollars.
Detroit Median Household Income (in 2010 dollars)
Detroit’s white flight – the city’s white population went from 1.5 million in 1950 to about 76,000 today – was also a big part of the general flight from the city. And the city’s much-discussed depopulation, from 1.8 million to about 700,000 today, has left it with two very real seemingly intractable problems.
First, density. The city may only be 700,000 people today, but it is still 138 square miles. Detroit, which was never very dense to begin with, is now far less dense than it’s kindred big cities of the 1950s – New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Philadelphia. And that matters a lot when it comes to delivering city services like plowing roads and picking up garbage.
Detroit had about 13,000 people per square mile in 1950, it has only about 5,100 today. New York and Los Angeles are actually more densely populated today than they were in 1950. And Philadelphia and Chicago have seen declines but are still well 11,000 people per square mile.
Second, fewer people means fewer city workers, and ultimately fewer people paying into the city’s municipal pension fund. Of the five biggest cities from 1950 – New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and Detroit – only Detroit has fewer municipal employees than it did in 1950.
In some ways that’s a good thing – or at least a necessary one. But that smaller government that serves 700,000 people, still has the pension obligations for the government designed to serve a much larger city. Detroit’s massive pension debt played a large role in the city’s bankruptcy.
None of this is to suggest Detroit’s leaders don’t bear some responsibility. Mayors from Coleman Young to Kwame Kilpatrick did little to right the city once its problems were apparent. And corruption has certainly played a role; Mr. Kilpatrick is now awaiting sentencing on corruption charges.
Furthermore, the Motor City highlights the dangers of building one’s economy around a single industry – particularly one where automation and cheap labor are constant challenges.
But Detroit’s problems are deeply rooted in the way the city developed and, in many senses, they are unique to its circumstances and history. It’s future will be challenging and may set precedents for issues like municipal pensions. But in a broader sense, don’t expect it to be instructive.
Robert Kosara is a Visual Analysis Researcher at Tableau Software, and formerly Associate Professor of Computer Science at UNC Charlotte. He has created visualization techniques like Parallel Sets and performed research into the perceptual and cognitive basics of visualization. Recently, Robert’s research has focused on how to communicate data using tools from visualization, and how storytelling can be adapted to incorporate data, interaction, and visualization.
Robert received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Vienna University of Technology (Vienna, Austria). His list of publications can be found online on his vanity website. He can be found on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google+ and Google Scholar.
EagerEyes is Robert Kosara’s place to reflect on the world of information visualization and visual communication of data. The goal is to help digest things that are happening in the field and discuss developments that may be tangential or early, but that are likely to have an impact.
The original idea for the site involved the interplay of art and science in visualization. While the focus has shifted, questions of representation are touched upon regularly. In fact, Robert believes that visualization can be vastly improved by a better understanding issues of representation and reading of data.
Other topics of interest include visualization for the masses, open data, and where the field of visualization is heading. Criticism of visualization techniques and applications, websites, and books is also a regular feature. Discussions of visualization techniques provide insights into the thinking behind them. Around important conferences like VisWeek, the site is also used for updates and pointers about things that are going on there.
Robert points out that this is not a blog. Blogs tend to aim for quick, current commentary. The articles on this website are meant to be of value over a longer time period (except for the ones in the blog category), and are usually much longer than the typical blog posting.
The Bikini Chart
The Obama administration released a chart a while ago that shows job losses during the last year of the Bush administration and the first year after Obama took office. The chart is simple yet effective in the way it communicates a message. It also has some very subtle design elements that communicate a much more negative undertone than is immediately obvious.
I have to say that I have admired this chart since the day it came out. It is clean with just the right amount of decoration to work: scales and legends that explain what we are seeing. The colors are based on the typical colors associated with the Republican Party (red) and the Democrats (blue). The data is also indisputable, coming from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The chart shows the number of jobs lost per month over about two years, ending in early 2010. The message is clear: things were getting worse under Bush but have been getting better under Obama. It doesn’t take a lot of skepticism or knowledge of politics to know that things don’t happen that quickly, but the message still comes across quite clearly. (Click image for larger version)
It is interesting that they chose to use bars that are pointing down rather than up. In a way, that makes sense: negative numbers typically are represented by bars that point down. But the number of people who lost their jobs is not negative, it’s only negative if you look at it as “negative job growth.” This was clearly a conscious decision. Since almost all the numbers are negative, it might have still made sense to show them pointing up though, to make the chart look less unusual. Its shape has earned the chart the nickname bikini chart, though.
But the downward-pointing bars communicate something beyond the values: there is something wrong here, these bars should not be pointing down. While longer bars are often better (more income, more votes, etc.), this is not the case here. This choice of direction for the bars explains what the viewer should be looking for.
The inverted version of the chart below shows why bars pointing up would have been much less clear: the shorter bars under Obama look like something is decreasing, which is surely is not a good thing, right?
All of these are good choices and make the chart both attractive and effective. This chart is one of the cleanest examples of political communication I know, and it is based on actual, real data – imagine that!
But there is also something devious going on here. The choice of colors is the only logical one given the political context, but there is more to it. The red is quite a bit darker than the blue. That is not a bad choice in principle, since it makes it easier to tell the colors apart when the difference is not only in hue but also in brightness. Of course, the blue could have been darker than the red as well.
The second design choice is one I only discovered fairly recently. It is a lot more obvious in the inverted image than the original, too: there is a gradient in both colors from light at the top to dark at the bottom. That is not very obvious in the original version, since we expect lighter colors at the tops of things and darker colors at their bases. After all, light tends to come from above, and the lower parts of things are where shadows are cast. Only in this case, the effect makes the brightness differences in the colors even stronger. The dark red is close to black, and the entire red-to-very-dark-red gradient is somewhat suggestive. What else is red and turns black? Drying blood.
In addition to that, I believe that the dark color, especially towards the lower end, makes the red bars appear heavier than the blue ones. Since they are also pointing down, the additional weight might make them appear longer, or at least cause people to remember them as longer. Vertical bars appear longer than horizontal ones of the same length, and it may well be that the combination of bars hanging down from a baseline and the heavier color have a similar effect.
This is unproven at this point, but if I am correct I think it opens up some interesting possibilities. It means that we need to be much more careful with our choice of color, since the perceived weight might influence the way the data is read and remembered. Even if long-term recall is not a goal in visualization, we have to remember what we just saw when we switch between views as we think about our data. Subtle shifts could make a big difference if they make some values appear just a bit larger or smaller than the others.
The bikini chart is a great example of just how strongly simple design choices can change the appearance of a simple bar chart. Even if my speculation about weight is wrong, the other choices communicate and explain what the viewer is supposed to look for, without the need for explanatory text or a “shorter bars are better” annotation. That’s pretty good for a simple bar chart.
Here was a interesting article from Kareen Liez at Naldz Graphics.
One of the hottest topics in design is Flat UI. Many design blogs and websites have talked about this and there had been various reactions from the audience worldwide. We can also see that many websites had adopted flat design in their course in achieving a responsive website. Flat design can be seen in every digital device because it had a huge impact to world of technology. But it has an even bigger impact to designers. It poses a challenge to designers on how they can work minimally when they have so many ideas in mind.
So today, let us join the web’s conversation about flat design. Let us talk about what flat design is, its principles, its similarities to skeuomorphism, and others. We will try to give you an in depth thought about flat design. In the end, let us all ponder if this is merely a trend or if this is something that is meant to last.
What is Flat Design
One look at it would give us one word- minimalism. Yes, flat design is more on designing with minimalism in mind but it doesn’t totally equate to minimalism. It has stripped off the three dimensional effects. Remember how icons looked like years ago? Most icons would appear like candies with striking colors and embossed effects. But in flat design, you will see icons free from bevels and other ornamentations. Flat design doesn’t use any decorative elements like gradient, shadows and textures. It is clean, crisp, two-dimensional, has open spaces and uses bright colors.
Image: Abhimanyu Rana
Flat design is focused more on communication rather than the appeal of the elements in it. It simplifies usability since it will draw the audience’s mind towards how a site or on how an application works rather than dwelling on how well-designed the elements are. It introduces visual clarity to communicate. It gives more emphasis to function rather than style.
The name is clearly derived to the way it looks- just flat.
Principles of Flat Design
It is actually easy to tell if the design is flat or not but let us look into five things that make a design look totally flat. These five principles of flat design can also be your guide in order to come up with a design that is not just “almost flat” but is really flat.
1. No ornaments and complex effects.
Image: Ben Bate
Any tool that adds an effect to a design is no longer used. No gradient, bevels, drop shadows, gradients and even textures. Icons and buttons no longer look beveled or bulged. It is just plain and flat. No extras.
2. Bright colors.
One thing that makes flat design beautiful is its colors. Instead of sticking to the usual colors like blue for business websites, flat design encourages the use of bright and colorful palettes. It uses colors like lilac purple, green sea, carrot orange, midnight blue and other colors like the ones in Flat UI Colors site. Color is important in flat design for it can help the users recognize them and would also help them identify what actions they could take.
3. Simple yet beautiful typography.
Image: Marcel Henkhaus
Of course, typography has to be simple too because if you will use special typefaces, it will look odd on a simple design. A sans serif type family looks best for flat design. But you can also combine it with a serif type or another novelty font. With a simple background, type would be given more emphasis which is one reason why you need to pick a good font.
4. Use of geometric shapes.
Image: Cosmin Capitanu
Flat design makes use of simple squares or circles for its buttons and icons. Squares could have sharp or rounded edges. You can also try using triangles and other custom shapes as long as it is consistent all throughout the design.
5. Minimalist and simple.
Image: Frantisek Kusovsky
We can never skip this part because flat design would always look minimal. You can observe that since the ornamentations were stripped down, it looked simple. But it isn’t really totally minimal because some flat designs still have so much design elements in them only that they are stripped off from details and effects.
Flat Design Usability
The emergence of smart phones is like a call for flat design. With smaller screens, more details on the aesthetics of a website or application will seemingly crowd it. Ornaments are like excess elements that can actually still make things work even if it is no longer there. Excessive decorations could cause distraction to the users and might even decrease usability. This is the problem that flat design responded to. It obliterated the ornaments and opted to focus on function.
Flat design becomes compelling and functional since it draws the users eye to the information instead of the distracting decorations. It is designed to show users the realism of on-screen experience and not to create a parody of physical things and experiences. With that, user experience is enhanced. As other design elements were stripped down, it allowed websites to load faster and to create cleaner codes for a more legible and adaptable design. This is great for responsive websites enabling easier usage and neater view.
A large number of the human population these days are exposed and aware of how computers and smartphones are used. It is no longer the time when people needed bulging buttons just to let them know that it is clickable. The “introduction” era has ended which means that it is time to “move forward”. Flat design is moving forward.
Is Flat Design, Skeuomorphism?
Heard of skeuomorphism? This word is kind of hard to spell and pronounce but yes, you might have seen it around the web. If not, let us ask Wikipedia what this word really is. As defined by Wikipedia, “skeuomorph / is a derivative object that retains ornamental design cues to a structure that was necessary in the original. It is compounded from the Greek: skeuos, (container or tool), and morphê,(shape). The term has been applied to material objects since 1890 and is now also used to describe computer interfaces.”
There had been many arguments about skeuomorphism and flat design. We have seen articles that referred to flat design as skeuomorphic. But is that really true? Let us try to examine both designs closely so that we will have better understanding on this. Take a look at the example below. These icons are from Apple’s iOS6 and iOS7. Notice their difference and similarities. Those from the iOS6 are beveled and had more details on it while the flat design for iOS7 had a simpler design minus the effects and bevels. The skeu design for iOS6 were based on physical things which was still adapted in iOS7. The only difference is the aesthetics or appearance but the representation is still the same. People will still be able to recognize what function the icons represent.
Skeuomorphism make use of textures, gradients and shadows to make an object look real. It copies the design of physical objects to make them real on screen. This is the cosmetic texturing era where you can see a real book with flipping pages, an application with leather borders or how a calendar icon looks like with binding paper calendar. With this, function is like converted to ornamentation. This is done in order to create a sense of familiarity to the users like how they use real objects. This was the time when people were not too familiar with how icons functions and how apps work.
In one way, flat design can be a skeuomorphic as it imitates the design of some items like a camera icon to represent its function as a camera. This way, it is related to the physical usage of a camera. But this has to be the case in order to easily relay its function to the users. In this aspect, flat design can be skeuomorphic. But if we look at how flat design is done, it is actually far from that of skeuomorphism because it is much simpler. So, flat design could be but is not skeuomorphic. It has reunited minimalism and skeuomorphism.
Why a Current Trend
Many would think that Flat UI is merely a stage or a phase in design. But some would think that it is actually an evolution- not just in design but in usage. Take a look at the Google Chrome logo below. Notice their difference in aesthetics while retaining its look and its brand. It is still the same logo we used to see minus the shadow, bevel and other details. The 3D motif was used from beginning of Google Chrome until March 2011 while the 2D motif was use from March 2011 to present. The logo shows us that even the web’s big boss adapted the use of flat design. You can also see that despite shedding it from the effects, it can still be recognized as Google Chrome’s logo. Aside from retaining the colors, style and shape, one reason why it is still an effective brand is because people are already familiar with it. Same is true with the implementation of flat design to websites and applications. The digital users already know how to use it and are entirely familiar with it which makes the design effective even if there are no longer bulging buttons to signify that they are clickable. It even looks lighter, understandable and cleaner which can aid in easier usage.
The question of how this trend started confuses some. But it can also be trailed back to printing and Swiss Style design. In printing, designers have to lessen gradients, bevels and shadows because it would appear different on print. That is why, designers need to be a bit minimalist when it comes to print. This time, even on screen, designers can also be minimalist. The rise of flat design on screen is due to the complex and huge amount of information that needs to be displayed. This calls the need for simpler design and simpler interface. With flat design, a website can be constructed much easily and it can also be good for responsive designs. It also help focus on delivering a clean and clear content to the digital users especially to those who have weak internet connections which means it would take much longer for websites to load. Flat design even became more famous when Microsoft launched Windows 8.
So, we could say that the popularity of flat design could be greatly connected to the digital evolution because we are living in the “now”. But that does mean that we all need to use flat in everything we do?
When to Use Flat Design
Image: Andy Law
It doesn’t mean that you have to use flat all the time. It depends on what you are working on. Flat design could look good in websites but there is always an exception. If you are working on a website for kids, it would be better to add some ornaments on it to make it look more colorful and attractive for children. Kids might not be able to understand a website with everything in “flat”. But if you are designing a portfolio, flat design can be good. This shows that you have to consider the kind of project you are working on and not just the trend.
Instead of sticking with the trend, know what will be good for your target audience and determine how your design can be effective for a long period of time. Prioritize substance, function and usability when working so that you will never go wrong. Use your mind to determine if a certain trend or style is suitable to a project. You can even work on something different from the latest trend and still look good. But this will also depend on what your clients want.
Giants Embraced it, Clients Want it
Let us face it. Even if a designer wants to work on a different style, it is still the desires of a client that will be followed. Most of the time, the client wants to have a project that adapts to a current trend. Clients look up at the “giants” and wanted theirs to be like what the giants have.
Giants who? Microsoft’s Windows 8 and Apple’s iOS7 are examples. They use flat design for simple, easier usage and more beautiful presentation. Microsoft is a big player in flat design when it used a minimalistic approach in Zune (which was not successful in the market) with big typography and neater design. From there, it then developed flatter designs up to the recent Windows Metro UI.
Image: Microsoft Windows 8
Image: Apple iOS7
Well, after flat design, there would surely be more trends that will come. Most likely, it would be an evolution to flat. Maybe some would add some 3d-ness into it while others would add some shadows or maybe textures. Or a new trend might arise. We will never know. Let us watch and wait on what is going to happen in the world of design on the next months and years to come. But what is really important is that whatever the trend is, you should be able to design with usability and the audience in mind. And also, it has to be timeless- trend or no trend.
So, what do you think of flat design? Is it here to stay or is it merely a fleeting trend?
Happy American Independence Day!
I cannot think of a better way to honor those who have defended our great country than will a historical collection of American flags from our nation’s history.
The national flag of the United States of America, often simply referred to as the American flag, consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton (referred to specifically as the “union”) bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars. The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain and became the first states in the Union.
Nicknames for the flag include the “Stars and Stripes”, “Old Glory”, and “The Star-Spangled Banner.”
Most of these flags are actually for sale by Jeff R. Bridgman, the nation’s largest seller of antique American Stars & Stripes, but antique flags are his foremost business.
Enjoy viewing these great visualizations of our country’s history. Enjoy your Fourth of July holiday and don’t forget to thank a veteran you know for our freedom. For those in harm’s way, God Bless You and stay safe.
Description and Significance
Vibrio cholerae is a “comma” shaped Gram-negative bacteria with a single, polar flagellum for movement. There are numerous strains of V. cholerae, some of which are pathogenic and some of which are not. [SOURCE]
The bacteria infects the intestine and increases mucous production causing diarrhea and vomiting which result in extreme dehydration and, if not treated, death. It is usually transmitted through the feces of an infected person, often by way of unclean drinking water or contaminated food. Since water treatment and sanitation is more advanced in the United States, cholera is not nearly as high of a public health threat in the U.S. as it is in densely populated, economically reduced areas like India or sub-Saharan Africa where water and sewage treatment technology is low.
Filippo Pacini first discovered V. cholerae in Italy in 1854, though it was originally believed to be Robert Koch who discovered it thirty years later in Berlin in 1884.
V. cholerae thrives in a water ecology, particularly surface water. The primary connection between humans and pathogenic strains is through water, particularly in economically reduced areas that don’t have good water purification systems.
Non-pathogenic strains are also present in water ecologies. It is thought that it is the wide variety of strains of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains that co-exist in aquatic environments that allow for so many genetic varieties. Gene transfer is fairly common amongst bacteria and recombination of different V. cholerae genes can lead to new virulent strains.
V. cholerae enters the human body through ingestion of contaminated food or water. The bacteria enters the intestine, embeds itself in the villi of absorptive intestinal cells, and releases cholera toxin. Cholera toxin (CT) is an enterotoxin made up of five B-subunits that form a pore to fits one A-subunit. CT is made from filamentous phage gene, CTXφ.9 A phage gene is also responsible for another virulence factor of V. cholerae, which is toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP), which acts as a receptor for CTXφ.
Physiological responses and symptoms that follow release of cholera toxin include stimulation of the mucosal lining of the intestine to secrete fluids. This causes vomiting and watery diarrhea that has a “rice water” quality. Death can occur from extreme dehydration and if not treated does occur 50-70% of the time.
Treatment includes rehydration and replacement of lost electrolytes, which are important ions, such as sodium and potassium, used in biochemical processes to keep the body alive. Because of the low quality of water treatment in many poverty ridden countries, rehydration with clean water can be impossible without medical aid and supplies.
The Outbreak Grows
The outbreak around Golden Square in 1854 hit a new peak before midnight on Thursday. Hundreds of the residents now had the disease and in some cases entire families in small, dark suffocating rooms.
Henry Whitehead’s social rounds had now become a death vigil. As dawn broke, Whitehead was called to one house where four people were already dead, their skin already taut and blue. As he made his way from house to house the horrors before him were difficult. However, while visiting one of the filthest houses on his route, the residents seemed to be doing just fine. He was amazed. Surely, they would have been sick too.
Back at 40 Broad Street, baby Lewis was silent. The disease had left her dead.
The neighborhood was under attack. Neighbors shuttered themselves up. By that afternoon, a yellow flag was raised to alert the residents that the cholera had struck.
But, you didn’t need to see the yellow flag to know there was trouble. You could see the dead being wheeled down the street by the cartload.
Next: Dr. John Snow
Here is another one from Charles Apple’s blog. [SOURCE]
“What a scream.
I don’t know for sure who designed it, but my old pal Doug Jessmer — who works there now — tells me:
I’m fairly sure that was Thomas Marcetti Jr. I know it was on his screen a bit the last few days.
Whoever worked on this page: Please let me hear a peep from you.
UPDATE – 4:15 p.m. PDT
Executive editor Bonita Burton tells us:
Thanks! Thomas Marcetti, Managing Editor of Design & Graphics with Designer Amy Johstono. It was Thomas who spotted the story and knew how it would resonate with our largely retiree readership who grew up with the candies.
Average daily circulation for the Villages Daily Sun is 44,624.
That page is from the Newseum. Of course.”
I came across this visualization problem on a UX User Experience blog. [SOURCE]
I am working on some routines for a client application to visualize data in a 3D bar chart style. The data consists mostly of smaller values with only a few large values.
So, the problem is that the large values pretty much makes the visualization useless. Does anyone have any suggestions on how to display this data … OR … perhaps a suggestion on how to massage the data to make it more visually appealing?
There were several suggestions made by other bloggers, but this recommended solution caught my eye.
For anyone mathematically inclined, the answer is to use a log scale.
For non-mathematical people, you may be better off showing a break in the chart and then the extreme value.
Here are a couple of the responses to this proposed solution.
- As much as I hate to downvote, I really don’t think the ‘non-mathematical’ option is a good solution. It’s more misleading than helpful, as the mind’s got a pretty powerful inclination to compare the bars without taking the axis break into consideration. In such a situation, a simple table of numbers might be better, as you’ll instantly see that some values are much wider than others. – Mal Ross Mar 20 at 21:29
- @MalRoss it isn’t always about comparing all the values with each other. Sometimes it’s more about visualising the relationships between a lower group and a higher group. And in terms of reading charts vs. tables, charts give a much quicker overview, and so are often preferred in business. – JohnGB Mar 20 at 22:08
- Logarithmic scales are probably the best bet, though they still end up throwing off the true vastness of the difference. It really depends on what needs to be conveyed by the way that the information is displayed. If the vastness of the difference is of key importance then simply graphing the small number as a very small line may still be appropriate.
03/26/2013 – Here are some thoughts from Alberto Cairo, The Father of Infographics.
Finally, one responder simply provided a cartoon to state his point of view (shown below).
What do you think about the solution proposed above? I have had this problem in the past too and would love to hear your point of view.